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Case of study of executive holloware

INTRODUCTION:

This document provides the case of research of Executive Holloware (EH), a business that manufactures items that aimed at the very best end of market with a commanded large price. The most crucial product was the handmade silver-plated tea sets.

In the next pages, a definition and specification of quality is presented and just why it is necessary for the company. Additionally it is mention the main factors behind the problems regarding study, the way of measuring quality in the levels through the manufacturing process and lastly the recommendations of guidelines for implementing quality advancements.

1. How come quality vital that you Executive Holloware?

The term Quality is the core business for Executive Holloware, because this company produces quality value products at the top end of market and commanded high rates. The most important product was the handmade, silver plated Georgian tea models, therefore the relevance of developing a product in the mandatory and approved conditions that fulfill the high targets of the customer.

Because the business in 2002 had turn into one of the leading UK Holloware suppliers, quality relates to the final product and the acceptance of the customer to the new products.

The idea of quality is also important for the organization because they produced distinct cutlery and tableware items and made a decision to specialise in the development of the tea pieces; consequently, the relevance of considering quality in the brand new methods, the raw materials, the internal process, and the ultimate products to handle the competitive edge and increase the profitability of the organization.

Quality is important since the company lost around £12,000 each month in re-working and consumer returns, therefore the relevance to attain a standardized process and to avoid defects in the merchandise.

2.- What do you understand by the word "quality"?

The term "quality" has been updated every year because of the several ideas, philosophies and methods that have emerged (Maguad, 2006). So as to understand better the term quality, it is necessary to consider the client point of view and the process involved. First, quality can be defined as "meeting the client requirements", but there is another stage of satisfying the customers such as for example delighting them, which allows the companies to measure client loyalty and the total satisfaction of the merchandise developed. (Oakland, 2003 testmyprep.com)

Second, the term quality also identifies the reliability of the merchandise. As a result of standardization and high-performance methods, quality depends upon how well the business performs through the procedure to develop a product and the power of it to keep meeting the customer expectations. (Maguad, 2006)

The concept of quality is related not merely in the merchandise, but also in the complete processes in an organization, hence the need to define a specification in creation. This allows developing a product with the standard requirements with a details description of pieces, parameters, raw material used and inspection method and analysis control. (Drew, 2006)

3.- How would you specify "quality" for Executive Holloware?

The term quality for Executive Holloware could be specified typically on the high value silver products available in the market. These products have to be without the scratches or bruises and also most of the items should keep the factory following the quality inspection to achieve the determined specifications. Because the primary product is quality value Holloware, EH must determine quality with the following characteristics in the process:

1. Reliability.-

Customers expect that the merchandise will last longer that the standard one in the market while purchasing a Holloware item, which means product specification and raw material are important regarding to the customer usage no matter the environmental factor. (Oakland, 2003)

2. Aesthetic characteristics.-

Clearly, the products are valuable because of the appearance, consequently the relevance of keeping away from any defect of each product. This also includes the specification of color, size, and durability. (Oakland, 2003)

Quality is also specified in the internal process. This process should be measure and much like the suitable ranges in production to build up a product that fulfil the features and it also necessitates "the participation from everyone in the organization". (Maguad, 2006)

4.- What exactly are the underlying factors behind the problems at Executive Holloware?

There are some challenges presented in the EH case of study. First, the merchandise developed how to write a reflection paper by the business are high value tea sets items, consequently the need to maintain a typical performance to make a product with no defect. One cause of the situation is that there is absolutely no specific definition of defect in the complete process. It is brought up that the senior store foreman doesn’t have a clear knowledge of defect definition which affect the correct performance of the complete process because it represent in re-working cost.

Other cause of problem is that each department will not maintain a close interaction about the relevance of the quality in the process. Paul realized that every department blame each other regarding to the scrapes and bruises of the product. Even the financing director did not has a clear vision of the situation, therefore the lack of communication and process interior control

In the Organization, there have been no specification clearly defined of top quality and the metrics of quality acceptance through the process, such as the clear description of scratch and bruise in the teapots and the acceptable ranges like tolerances or technical specs in creation. This generates problems in the process and the re-working price while sending back the items to remove or to correct the defects.

Finally, quality assurance during the process is responsibility of every member in the organization. (Talha, 2004) In cases like this, the quality department was the only responsible of this task and the additional departments were not able to perform an excellent inspection before the product leaves the business to the marketplace. A clear quality control process will ensure the good performance and development of the high value product for customer expectations. (Talha, 2004)

5.- How should Executive Holloware measure quality at each stage of the process?

Paul can employ a blend of tools and ways to measure top quality in each stage of the process as a way to highlight complex info in a clear visible way, to evaluate the phases that generates most of the problems, to emphasize the areas to become prioritized, showing relationships between the departments, to determine reason behind failure and to implement an improvement procedure. (Bamford, 2003)

The measurement methods of top quality in each stage will be the following.

* Press Shop.- At this procedure the Pareto diagram may be the tool that organizes the info from the larges to the smallest that requires attention and can be used for measuring at this time. (Hagemeyer, 2005). This enables to identify the challenge in the first place and to avoid sending the defect product to the next stage. A graphical program, such as scattered diagrams, could be applied in this stage to show the relationship between the factors. (Hagemeyer, 2005).

* Plating and Softening:

There are some tools for measuring that can be applied this stage as an example the Check Sheet to acquire data, organize and categorize to detect defects and for additional analysis; the histograms, to show the rate of recurrence with which a worth arises; and Control Charts as a sensitive program utilized by the staff to prevent mistakes or defects. (Hagemeyer, 2005).

* Assembly.-

At this stage, Paul should measure quality by the Statistical Procedure Control Chart, which keep an eye on and predicts the functionality of the process; the process flow diagram showing a graphic illustration of using the process to avoid problems. (Hagemeyer, 2005) Finally, the Gage repeatability and reproducibility tool can be applied to determine the quantity of variation in the measurement system and the sources of the variation. (William, 2005)

* Polishing.-

In the investigation made by Paul, it was demonstrated that the polishing and buffing department got the mayor number of complains due to the scrapes and bruises. Therefore, the quality techniques and tools which might be applied in this level for measurement are Reason and Effect Diagram to recognize the sub-causes of the main problem; The Statistical Quality Control to keep an eye on the production process by taking samples of the merchandise and plot the data in charge charts. (Hagemeyer, 2005).

6.- What actions would you advise Paul Stone to take to improve quality?

The System, Do, Check and Work (PDCA) cycle is a suitable technique for monitoring and issue solving for continuous top quality improvement and the methods are the following:

1. Plan.- In this task, Paul must identify the problem with the quality equipment like brainstorming, Pareto charts, employees inputs, why-why diagrams; analyze the issues and set targets (cheek bed linens, scatter diagrams, control charts, reason and defect diagrams); determine performance measurements; and explore choice solutions. (Ahmed, 2002)

2. Do.- This consists of planning and execute the alternatives defined. The action plan is necessary with the people involved in the implementation and the duties of each one; therefore the internal communication and dedication in the organization is crucial. (Oakland, 2003)

3. Check- In this task, Paul will be able to evaluate the performance with different tools such as control charts, check bed linens, histograms, Pareto charts, etc.) (Ahmed, 2002).

4. Act.- This consists of even more improvement and standardized solutions in the organization. (Ahmed, 2002)

Paul must consider that a quality improvement program ought to be employed as a strategic improvement initiative, rather than a performance improving tool or techniques; and it should be integrated with "organizational strategy and operations to succeed". (Asif, 2009).

In addition to the methods mentioned above, a quality improvement implementation must consider the commitment and involvement of all parties along the way, an open communication, continuous improvement, internal and external customer emphasis, a partnership with suppliers, and monitoring and analyzing methods of quality. (Mohammad, 2006).

Conclusions

Quality is a crucial concept in the performance of any firm. A definition of the term "Quality" has been up to date because of the business procedures, environmental adjustments and customer goals. (Maguad, 2006). In this document the word quality was defined and also it was showed the importance of it for Executive Holloware. The causes of the problems in the event study were offered, and the suggestion of the way the company should measure top quality in each stage of the process.

Finally, it really is included the measures for implementation a quality improvement in the organization so that you can face the customer requirements and to accomplish as a competitive company in the Holloware sector.

REFERENCES:

1. Ahmed S. (2002), et. al. Survey and Case investigations on program of quality management equipment and techniques in SMIs. [online]. 20, (7), 795-826. Document from Emerald, last accessed 10 December 2009 at: www.emeraldinsight.com

2. Asif M. (2009). Why quality management programs fail: A strategic and operations management perspective. [online]. 26, (8), 778-794. Article from Emerald previous accessed 13 December 2009 at: www.emeraldinsight.com

3. Bamford D. et. al. (2003). The use of quality management equipment and techniques: a report of application in day-to-day situations. [online], 22, (4), 376-392. Document from Emerald previous accessed 11 December 2009 at: www.emeraldinsight.com

4. Drew, E. et. al. (2006). Quality Operations Approaches in Irish Businesses. [online], 18, (4), 358-371. Document from Emerald last accessed 13 December 2009 at: www.emeraldinsight.com

5. Hagemeyer C. et. al. (2005). Classification and application of issue solving quality equipment. A manufacturing case study. [online]. 18, 5, 455-483. Content from Emerald previous accessed 13 December 2009 at: www.emeraldinsight.com

6. Maguad, B. (2006). The present day quality movement: Origins, expansion and trends. [online]. 17, (2), 179-203. Article from Business Resource Premier last accessed 13 December 2009 at: http://web.ebscohost.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/ehost/pdf?vid=2&hid=4&sid=a7ce8905-4894-4956-8d8c-a956756c2247%40sessionmgr14

7. Mohammad, A. (2006). The impact of organizational customs on the successful implementation of total quality operations. [online]. 18, (6), 606-625. Content from Emerald last accessed 13 December 2009 at: www.emeraldinsight.com

8. Oakland J. (2003). Total Quality Management: text with situations. [online]. Oxford. Butterworth-Heinemann. E book from Dawsonera previous accessed 13 December 2009 at: http://www.dawsonera.com

9. Talha M. (2004). Total quality operations (TQM): an overview, [online], 17, (1), 15-19, Content from Emerald last accessed 12 December 2009 at: www.emeraldinsight.com

10. William D. et. al. (2005). An Intro to GAGE R & R. [online]. 44, (13), 24-25. Article from Organization Source Premier last accessed 13 December 2009 at: http://web.ebscohost.com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/ehost/pdf?vid=2&hid=4&sid=470fb346-e63b-478c-b153-7df8cf72ce9a%40sessionmgr11

Cognitive Network Security

Cognitive Network Security

Introduction:

The rapid development of varied communication and wireless systems had resulted in ultimate spectrum insufficiency. This may cause a great spectrum extinction thus not allowing new wireless services to be set up. To overcome this superb spectrum disaster and optimally utilize the underutilized bands, a fresh technology thus called cognitiveradio evolved. This technology scampers the program programs therefore helps cognitive user to search for spectrum holes, select the best among them, function jointly in coordination with additional users and don’t disturb who owns spectrum on arrival[1].The customers do stay connected in an ad-hoc manner and there is no guaranteed network architecture. This produces the privacy problems more intricate than in conventional wireless products. [2]. The channel of transport is free oxygen, any adulteration of data can be achieved without much being discovered by the sufferer and at the most severe case, the info signals are also jammed. Establishing secureness in these networks is a risky task as a result of its inimitable quality. [4] The innate temperament of it has got made it an open play ground for attackers.

There are four layers in a cognitive network out of which Physical layer may be the lowermost layer and different attacks are feasible right here .The main focus is on episodes in these layers since it is the common layer and features same compatibility with all other devices. The rapid development of technology has resulted in a new attack so called Most important User Emulation Assault wherein the imitation of spiteful user as a major transmitter happens to deceive the secondary users and gain gain access to over molar mass cl the white space.

Better functioning of the Cognitive network is normally affected to a great extent if this Principal User Emulation Strike is severe.[3]Earlier methods and the most primitive are cyclostationary and the energy detection types [11]. The first approach is based on the actual fact that the signals from primary users happen to be periodic and do have got regular cyclostationarity property. The next method involves comparison of vitality of the transmission with a preset threshold. [10].These methods are already bypassed owing to the rapid expansion of technology. It can be done possibly by impersonating the principal transmitted signal or great power signal to confuse the strength detector [9].

Thus to avoid the challenge of PUEA, we need a trustable method to verify the arrival of primary user .One such method is verification of accredited user by means of biased reaction signalling[6]. The other approach includes LocDef , where we work with localization strategy by non interactive strategy [7]. We can also use General public encryption systems therefore ensuring the reliable communication[5]. Primary user includes a closely located helper node which plays the role of a bridge thereby allowing of the verification of the primary user’s signals applying cryptographic signatures and genuine hyperlink signatures.[8].There are hand off techniques meant for secret interaction of sharing session keys between the customer and the router [12].

We do add the tag for authentication in a transparent method so as no to hinder the primary receiver but nonetheless maintain authenticity with the cognitive customer. We can add this tag in parity bits of the codeword or in the modulation scheme .[13].But to create this signature embedding correct, mistake control codes like convolutional codes, turbo codes or alamauti codes can be utilized. .A convolutional encoder is definitely a linear predetermined-state unit with n algebraic function generators and K level shift register. The binary suggestions data, can be shifted as b bits at a time along the registers. Decoding can be achieved by either sequential decoding, maximum likelihood or opinions decoding[15]. In case of turbo codes, two RSC elementary codes are in a parallel company. Maximum A Posteriori algorithm is utilized for decoding it in iterative procedure[16].In an extremely noisy environments single mistake control codes do not have high coding gain. To be able to boost this concatenated codes are preferred.[14] Hence to deal up with the FCC restrictions, we proposed a method where the authentication tag is certainly embedded onto the data transmission by the helper node after encoding and the comparative research which concatenated codes serve the very best to lessen the bit error charge has been discussed.

II. PROPOSED METHOD:

2.1)HASH ALGORITHM:

Procedure:

Message is Padded so that the length of message fits to 896 modulo 1024 . In certain cases ,the length may match the padding becomes additional. We do add a binary bit 1 followed by binary 0s to make the desired length. Depending upon some of the message size, we may have n amount of bits padded where n=1 to 1024.We do believe that the concept after padding is an unsigned integer of 128 bits and outcome of earlier two techniques is a 1024 bit integer in order to calculate the distance of message. Eight registers each of potential to hold 64 bits (p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w) are had a need to grasp the 512 little results momentarily .This 512 bit output can be carried over as an input to the consecutive levels. For the first level, the previously stored transitional hash productivity is taken. On digesting the padded concept of 1024 bits, we get 64 little bit as input per round. So to keep the security and prevent repetitions, we do apply a constant to indicate the round amount out of 80.After completion of 80 rounds, the ultimate stage result is fed back to the first block until the message gets over. As a result we need (Oi-1) to produce Oi where I may be the stage number.

2.2)METHOD OF EMBEDDING:

C:\Users\Harini Murali\Desktop\beamer\new.PNG

We assume that the principal transmitter and the helper node how to write an analysis paper share almost the same geological location and the helper node has a secret conversation with the secondary users there. The primary transmitter on arrival generally transmits a data signal to its designed primary receiver. Since the primary transmitter has the highest priority and by no means it should be interfered we use the helper node to embed this secureness tag. The principal transmitter encodes the data sequence, modulates and transmits the transmission. The data sequence after encoding is certainly modulated and getting transmitted by the principal transmitter. The helper node below repeats the signal and the hashed end result is being embedded by it .Here the embedding is done so that the tag to info ratio is usually comparatively low. Encode the data sequence to form N code terms and each codeword includes p bits. We receive an authentication tag by splitting the hash function productivity obtained earlier into p bit blocks. The tag consequently obtained is substituted instead of first p items of the full total N code words obtained. We perform obey the regulations according to FCC since this tag embedding process is solely performed by the helper node. At the receiver end the authentication tag is definitely retrieved and checked for authenticity. This tag verification is being done by the Cognitive Radio customer after reception since we performed assume that the main element for hash have been exchanged privately before. If verification is successful, the task is suspended and secondary end user searches for any new white space.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

BER Ideals FOR CONVOLUTIONAL CODES:

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Before embedding

10323

8506

6713

5111

3611

2440

1463

788

361

After embeddin

10324

8511

6720

5118

3613

2445

1465

791

363

a2.PNG

BER VALUES FOR TURBO CONVOLUTIONAL CODES:

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Before embedding

10201

8385

6645

5065

3602

2428

1435

732

340

After embeddin

10264

8530

6793

5210

3716

2460

1484

750

342

BER Ideals FOR CONVOLUTIONAL-ALAMOUTI CODES:

C:\Users\Harini Murali\Desktop\a1.PNG

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

CONVO-ALAMOUTI before embedding

6114

4879

3609

2639

1778

1153

740

410

252

CONVO- ALAMOUTI after embedding

6120

4883

3617

2645

1783

1160

743

441

254

BER VALUES FOR TURBO-ALAMOUTI CODES:

C:\Users\Harini Murali\Desktop\a.PNG

Eb_N0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

TURBOALAMOUTI before embedding

6049

4815

3572

2618

1690

1124

724

395

249

TURBO- ALAMOUTI after embedding

6055

4823

3580

2635

1695

1135

728

398

251

REFERENCES:

  1. O. León ,Hernández-Serrano, J.,Soriano, M.,. Securingcognitiveradionetworks, International Journal of Communication Systems,23: 633-652. May 2010
  1. Parvin, S.http://www.scopus.com/static/images/s.gif,Han, S.http://www.scopus.com/static/images/s.gif,Tian, B.http://www.scopus.com/static/images/s.gif,Hussain, F.K, Trust-based authentication for safe and sound communication inCognitiveRadioNetworks,International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, Hong Kong; China;,pp. 589-596. December 2010.
  1. Zhang, C.,Yu, R.,Zhang, Y., Performance evaluation of Primary Individual Emulation Assault inCognitiveRadionetworks,International Wi-fi Communications and Mobile Computing Conference,pp.371-376. August 2012.
  1. Parvin, S.,Hussain, F.K.,Hussain, O.K.,Han, S.,Tian, B.,Chang, E., Cognitiveradionetworksecurity: A survey ,Journal of Network and Computer system Applications, 35: 1691-1708. November 2012.
  1. Parvin, S.,Hussain, F.K.,Hussain, O.K, Digital signature-basedauthenticationframework incognitiveradionetworks, International Meeting on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia,pp.136-142. December 2012.
  1. Kumar, V.,Recreation area, J.M.,Kim, J.,Aziz, A., Physical layerauthenticationusing controlled inter symbol interference, International Symposium on Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks,pp. 286. October 2012.
  1. Ruiliang Chen, Jung-Min Recreation area, and Jeffrey H. Reed,Defense against Primary Individual Emulation Episodes in Cognitive Radio Networks,IEEE transactions on Selected areas in communication,26:25-37. January 2008.
  1. Tingting Jiang., Huacheng Zeng., Qiben Yan., Wenjing Lou.,Thomas Hou,Y, On the Limitation of Embedding Cryptographic Signature for Main Transmitter Authentication, IEEE transactions on Wireless communication letters,1:324-327. August 2012.
  1. Chen,R.,Park,J.,Reed,J.H, Defense against primary user emulation episodes in cognitive radio systems, IEEE transactions on Selected Areas in Communications, 26:25–37. 2008.
  1. Liu,Y.,Ning,P., Dai,H, Authenticating principal users’ signals in cognitive radio systems via integrated cryptographic radio systems via integrated cryptographic and wireless link signatures,IEEE Symp. on Secureness and Privacy, pp. 286–301. 2010.
  1. Kim,H.,Shin,K.G, In-band spectrum sensing in cognitive radio systems: energy detection or characteristic detection? ,ACM international meeting on Mobile computing and networking, pp.14-25. 2008.
  1. He, Y.,Xu, L.,Wu, W., A local joint quickly handoff scheme incognitivewireless mesh networks , IEEE transactions on Secureness and Communication Networks, 7:455-465. February 2014.
  1. Xi Tan., Kapil Borle., Wenliang Du., Biao Chen, Cryptographic Link Signatures for Spectrum Usage Authentication in Cognitive Radio, ACM conference on Wireless network security,pp.79-90.2011.
  1. Avila, J.,Thenmozhi, K, DWT highlighted concatenated multi band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM)-upgraded enactment, International Journal of Engineering and Technology,5:2155-2162. June 2013.
  2. Andrew J. Viterbi, Convolutional Codes and ’Their Functionality in Communication Devices , IEEE transactions on Conversation Technology,19:751-772. October 1971.
  1. Claude Berrou., Alain Glavieux ,Near optimum mistake correcting coding and decoding-turbo codes,IEEE Transactions on communications,44:1261-1271. October 1996
  1. Wang,X.,Wu,Y.,Caron,B, Transmitter identification employing embedded pseudo random sequences, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting,3:244-252. September 2004.
  1. Danev,B.,Luecken,H.,Capkun,Z.,Defrawy,K.E,Episodes on physical-layer identification,ACM Meeting on Wireless Network Security,pp.89-97. 2010.
  1. Proakis,J.G., Salehi,M, Digital Communications.NY, McGraw-Hill, pp. 192, 434, 472-474. 2007.
  1. Chen,Z.,Cooklev,T.,Chen,C., Pomalaza-R´aez,C, Modeling Primary Consumer Emulation Episodes and Defences in Cognitive Radio Systems, International Performance Processing and Communications Conference,pp.208-215. 2009.

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